and Landscaping Water Conservation Tips and Rain Barrel Information
Massacusetts Water Resources Authority
32 EASY, PRETTY LOW-WATER PLANTS!
|There are many varieties of low water use plants that can withstand dry
summers, and that actually thrive in drier soil. Here are a few of them.
THE BEST (AND EASIEST) WAY
TO WATER YOUR LAWN
|Once a secret of the pros, you can get the best lawn-watering device on the market for a reasonable price at any hardware or garden supply store.
The Inch Rule:
Don't Over Water Your Garden
|Established lawns and shrubs and most vegetables and flowers need just one inch of watera week. If there has been an inch of rainfall during the week, you don't need to water at all. How can you tell if your yard has received an inch of water? Collect rainfall or sprinkler water in a container such as a coffee can, then measure with a ruler. Inexpensive gauges are available at most garden centers.
| Make the most of your garden, your time, and your water just by planting the right stuff in the right places.
|Easy ways to save water indoors
is an especially important time to save water. Outdoor water use increases
residential consumption from 10% to 50% in June, July, August and September.
These tips will show you ways to use water more efficiently outdoors,
save money -- and help lower garden maintenance, too!
Go to Water Conservation and Efficiency Main Page
TIMING IS CRITICAL!
Watering your lawn mid-day will result in a high rate of evaporation and sunburned
grass. Roots can maintain plenty of moisture even after several days without
rain. Before watering, look for signs that it's needed: patchy areas,
a general change in color or footprints that remain in the grass long
after being made.
Frequent light watering can actually weaken your lawn by encouraging shallow
roots that are less tolerant of dry periods and more susceptible to insect
damage. Wet grass can also burn in the hot sun and is vulnerable to disease
from mildew and fungus. Test your soil for dryness by digging your finger below the surface of
the soil. Water only when the soil is dry to a depth of 1 1/2 inches.
When watering, check to see that water soaks down 3-4 inches. This encourages
deep root growth.
GIVE YOUR LAWN A REST
If your lawn "fades" in the summer, don't panic. Grass becomes naturally
dormant during hot, dry periods. It will revive quickly after a good rainfall
or when the weather turns cooler.
- One inch of water a week (rain plus supplemental watering) should
be plenty. After heavy rains, you may not need to water for 10-14 days.
- Water very early in the morning.
- Never water when it's windy, rainy or very hot.
- Raise the blade level of your mower to 2 -3 inches or more. Longer
grass retains more moisture because it shades the roots. It encourages
deeper rooting, requires less fertilizer and competes better against
- Never water faster than the soil can absorb it. Avoid puddling and
- Be sure your hose has a shut-off nozzle. Hoses without a nozzle can
spout 10 gallons or more per minute.
- If you have an automatic sprinkler system, make sure the timer or "controller" is set to water each landscape zone efficiently. Program
the controller to operate according to the watering needs of your lawn
or garden. Better still, install a rain sensor or soil moisture sensor
that turns the system off if its raining or if moisture is present
in the soil.
- Do not apply fertilizer in the summer - new growth requires more water.
Apply in early spring and or fall.
- Aerate your soil in April, September or October to aid water absorption
CHOOSE THE RIGHT AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER
the best sprinkler system to fit your lawn size and configuration. Install good quality sprinkler heads that provide a low precipitation
rate and keep them in good repair. Check the sprinkler heads frequently
for proper direction and even spray pattern. Studies have shown that automatic
sprinkler systems often use 20% - 30% more water than hand-held hose watering.
Applying the right amount of water is possible with a well-designed in-ground
sprinkler system but it requires careful management. Use the "controller" to manage efficient operation of the system. Here are a few important
features to look for:
- At least three independent programs to allow watering different parts
of the yard on different days.
- Station run times from one to 200 minutes
- Three start times per program
- Odd, even, weekly and interval program capability up to 30 days
- Rain shut-off device capability
Effective watering will result in a healthy
lawn that looks great and can withstand disease as well as seasonal and
environmental stress. For more information, check out the following web
PREPARE NEW LAWNS PROPERLY
lawns require more water than they should because they are seeded on improperly
prepared soil beds. Grass needs at least 3-6 inches of very good topsoil.
Rich loam mixed with plenty of peat moss or composted leaves will hold moisture
and allow for good, deep root development. The kind of grass you grow is
a factor to consider. Lawns planted with fescue grasses do better than bluegrasses
during periods of low rainfall and are slower to go dormant.
LANDSCAPE, GARDEN AND FLOWER CARE
The amount of water you use outdoors (and can save) depends on your
watering technique as well as the size, type and location of your lawn,
shrubs and gardens. Below are some helpful links:
gardenforever.com - Tips for people of all ages, abilities and lifestyles
Standards for Organic Land Care: Practices for the Design and Maintenance of Ecological Landscapces (PDF), via Northeast Organic Farming Association (NOFA). Updated January, 2011.
How to Build a Rain Garden and Gardens that Save Waterways, via This Old House magazine.
PLAN AND DESIGN YOUR GARDEN FOR EFFICIENT WATERING
Be aware of the various zones in your yard (hot/sunny, cool/shady, moist,
dry, etc.) and plan your gardens and plantings accordingly. For example,
if your have a hot, dry zone, carefully select plants that can endure
hot, dry conditions.
CLUSTER PLANTS THAT NEED EXTRA CARE
If you choose shrubs, flowers or vegetables that need lots of sun and moisture, place them near each other. You'll save time and water by watering
just one area of your yard.
\'zîr-i-skap\ n.[Greek, xeros, dry]
|Xeriscape, a concept that originated in the arid Southwest, is water conservation through creative landscaping.
Xeriscape principles,similar to those described here, emphasize proper siting, planning and design, soil improvements, mulching, plant selection, and maintenance for efficient water use.
USE LOW-WATER PLANTS
There are many varieties of low water use plants that can withstand dry
summers, and actually thrive in drier soil. Here are a few of them: 32 Low-Water
Remember: All newly planted trees, shrubs
and flowers intially need water to get established. But once established,
drought tolerant plantings can survive without supplemental watering.
One excellent resource for gardeners is the Massachusetts Horticultural
MULCH TO KEEP ROOTS MOIST
Mulch can serve as a ground cover that reduces water evaporation from
the soil and reduces the number of weeds that would otherwise compete
with the plant for available soil moisture.
Mulch flowers, shrub beds and trees with pine bark mulch. In your vegetable
beds, use salt marsh hay, newspaper (no color pages), black plastic, or
better yet, landscape fabric - that allows water to penetrate the fabric
but keeps down weed growth. On a sweltering 100° day, a 3-inch mulch
can keep the soil underneath up to 25° cooler! Avoid white marble
chips that can damage acid-loving plants like rhododendrons. Stones or
pebbles are good on shady areas. They shouldnt be used near the
house because they give off too much heat. Ground covers, such as ivy
or pachysandra, also prevent evaporation around established shrubs and
ORGANIC MATTER WILL HELP YOUR SOIL RETAIN MORE
Peat moss, composted leaves (leaf mold), composted manure, composted
kitchen vegetable scraps and grass clippings will all improve soil structure
and enhance moisture-retaining capabilities.
Incorporate organic matter into your flower and vegetable beds, preferably
DRIP IRRIGATION AND SOAKER HOSES THE BEST
WAYS TO WATER
- Unfortunately, much of the water dispersed through sprinklers and hoses
by enthusiastic gardeners evaporates before it ever reaches its intended
source - thirsty roots.
- Use a drip irrigation system or soaker hose in gardens that need the
most water ("moisture-zoned" gardens) - vegetables, fruits, newly planted
trees and shrubs, and some flower gardens.
- Once a secret of professional gardeners, drip irrigation is excellent
for home use. This highly efficient watering method consists of a system
of nozzles that deliver small quantities of water at low pressure directly
to where it does the most good - the root zones of plants.
- Drip (or trickle) irrigation can save 30%-70% of the water used by overhead
- A soaker hose is a canvas or rubber hose with perforations. It is most
effective when it lies on top or slightly below soil level and mulch is
placed over the soil and hose. You can install the hose in the spring
and leave it in place all season.
- In general, use the drip (or trickle) irrigation or soaker hose methods
until the soil is moist 3-4 inches below the surface.
- If your garden is small, use a hose to apply water very slowly at the
base of each plant - not on leaves and foliage.
- Saucer-like basins around each plant help to concentrate water where
it is most needed - at the plant's roots. Watering by hand is easy when
there are saucers to fill up.
Rain barrels "harvest" rain and runoff from your home's downspouts. They are particularly useful if your can locate plants, beds
or pots that require moist soil nearby. They are also great for filling up watering cans for indoor plants.
Where to get a rain barrel - Rain barrels are available for purchase on-line and in most large garden centers. It is also relatively easy to make your own.
Discounts - MWRA does not offer discounted rain barrels at this time. Some communities offer discounted rain barrels. Contact your local Department of Public Works for information on what's available.
Rain Barrels in Boston - Boston Building Resources
Purchase Rain Barrels on-line - To purchase a rain barrel on-line, visit the following web sites:
Make Your Own Rain Barrel - if you are handy, making a rain barrel is relatively easy and inexpensive. Below are links to DIY instructions.
LINKS FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT WATER CONSERVATION
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August 10, 2016