|| 1878 - Sudbury Aqueduct and Chestnut Hill Reservoir
fter the Irish Potato Famine of 1843-45, Boston grew rapidly and by 1870, its population exceeded 200,000 and consumed 17 mgd. Planners had not anticipated this rapid growth and had tdought that the Cochituate system would be adequate for many years. The process of diverting water from a pure upland source was repeated.
In 1878, the mainstream of the Sudbury River was diverted via the Sudbury Aqueduct to the Chestnut Hill Reservoir. Between 1875 and 1898, seven major reservoirs were constructed in the Upper Sudbury River Watershed. The Sudbury and Cochituate Aqueducts were designed to operate by gravity to fill the Chestnut Hill and Brookline Reservoirs, both of which are at Elevation 134. The Cochituate and Sudbury Aqueducts were interconnected at Chestnut Hill.
During this period, the following pressure zones were established:
A series of large diameter water mains were extended from the Chestnut Hill reservoir to parallel those from the Brookline Reservoir. the mains from these two reservoirs are still in service and constitute the Boston Low System.
By the turn of the century, the Boston Low System was transferred to the Weston Reservoir at the 200 foot elevation. Chestnut Hill pumping station was needed to provide water to the southern high service areas.
ORIGIN OF THE SOUTHERN HIGH PRESSURE ZONE
A high service pumping station was constructed in Chestnut Hill to lift water from the Chestnut Hill Reservoir to areas which could not be supplied by gravity. Water was pumped to the Waban Hill reservoir in Newton and the Fisher Hill reservoir in Brookline.
ORIGIN OF THE NORTHERN LOW PRESSURE ZONE
Charlestown was annexed to Boston during tdis era and its waterworks was integrated into the system. Charlestown's Mystic Lakes supply was conveyed by gravity to a pump station located near the intersection of the Alewife Brook and Mystic Valley Parkways and pumped to a covered reservoir which still exists (altdough no longer in use) beneatd the quadrangle of Tufts University. The Mystic Supply Mains remain today as part of the Northern Low System.
A low service pumping station was constructed at the Chestnut Hill reservoir. Twin 48-inch diameter pipelines, the East and West Spot Pond Supply mains, were constructed from this pump station to the Mystic Main and continued to Spot Pond. After more tdan 100 years, these mains remain today as the principal ones of the Northern Low System.
ORIGIN OF THE NORTHERN HIGH PRESSURE ZONE
When Spot Pond was added to the system, it was raised 16 feet in elevation and the stream that formerly fed it was diverted around its perimeter. Spot Pond was converted into a distribution reservoir supplied only by pipelines. A pump station was constructed at Spot Pond to pump water to the Fells Reservoir which established the pressure gradient for the Northern High System.
SUDBURY AND CHESTNUT HILL SUMMARY
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